Sacrificial Nationalism: 1916 Uprising

The 1916 Uprising, also referred to as the Easter Rebellion, was a pivotal moment in Modern Irish history. Though it appears to be a failure at first glance, it was a sacrificial act producing the momentum for Irish nationalists to gain Home Rule, and eventual independence in its entirety. This paper will examine how the concept of sacrifice within the 1916 Uprising, tied in with Catholicism, formed the foundation to Irish nationalism in the 20th century.

In order to understand the Irish struggle for independence from the British Empire, and the cultural connections of Catholicism within Ireland, we must examine the events and movements of the 19th century. The struggle for power dates back to the English invasion of 1171, with British power being insured by the Penal Laws of 1704 restricting all rights of the Catholic majority, and successfully weakening all resistance in Ireland. As a result the Catholics had no political power or even ability to possess their own land, a system that would breed longstanding bitterness between Protestant landlords and their Catholic tenants, the perfect framework for Sinn Fein rebels to build their sacrificial nationalism upon.

The landlord system removed any economic security or foundation the Catholic tenants had in case of economic hardship, and when the Famine hit in 1845 Ireland was left to fend for itself, a bitter choice the Irish nationalists never let Great Britain forget. British decisions during the famine were a catalyst for nationalist movements of the late 19th century at home and abroad in America. The destruction of the Famine motivated those remaining in Ireland to push for change, starting with land reform building towards the ultimate goal of Home Rule.

A new movement emerged of organizations and nationalist leaders, the most significant being the Land League, the Sinn Fein, and Charles Parnell, leaving behind a legacy of action against British rule. They developed a precedent of mobilization and religious unity in their nationalism, as the Land League was built upon two culturally unifying points – land and Catholicism, as most of the rural population belonged to the Catholic Church. The Sinn Fein also developed with Catholicism as a sense of Irish identity as it was the popular majority within Ireland. Parnell’s legacy focused on “obstructionism” within Parliament, a practice that disrupted all agendas to ensure Ireland’s concerns were heard and Home Rule bills considered, and a precedent of constitutional means to achieve independence.

Following the path of constitutional means and Home Rule bills, frustration built amongst the Irish people as the first and second attempts were denied by Parliament, with the third attempt passed in 1914 but implementation delayed by WWI, Irish patience came to an end. This is the key factor that determined why Nationalist rebels chose to rise up in 1916; they needed to make a sacrificial stand the British could not ignore. Home Rule delay signified the end of constitutional means and a shift toward radical policies, a system already utilized by the Sinn Fein.

British disregard for Ireland’s movement towards Home Rule seems at first glance as a cruel ignorance of their own subjects, but in reality Great Britain had concerns of what Irish independence would mean for the role of the Catholic Church. British Protestants feared a strong Papal power in their neighboring island, and with a developing Catholic nationalism at the forefront of the radical Sinn Fein campaign for independence, would upset the balance of power; containment seemed the best policy to follow. Religious tension continued throughout the entire struggle, stemming from Ireland’s new nationalism that combined Catholicism to create a strong unified movement manifested through the sacrifice of 1916.

Originally the Catholic Church was opposed to the idea of Home Rule; like the British the Pope feared Irish independence would unsettle the balance of power, diminishing Papal dominion over Ireland. The Home Rule Bills also clashed with Pope Leo XIII’s desire to re-establish diplomatic relations with Great Britain and heal the wounds from the Reformation, which Irish independence would only further the divide. To solve this problem Pope Leo XIII condemned the nationalist movements in June 1888, forbidding good Catholics from participation and creating tension within the Irish people and church. This decision backfired as the desire of the people to gain Home Rule overruled the decision from the Vatican, and Irish Catholics and their priests continued to support Parnell and the Sinn Fein. Eventually Parnell was able to gain full support of the Catholic Church, by committing Catholic education as a central cause to his Nationalist Party.

In spite of the initial opposition of Catholicism to the nationalist movements like the Sinn Fein, the Catholic Church remained the main culturally unifying point in an Anglicized Ireland. The nation of Ireland, in the midst of its development found, itself caught between two different cultures, their native Celtic culture which was portrayed as backward and a foreign British Anglicanism that was viewed as the way to modernism. This cultural confusion led to a disappearance of Celtic culture and particularly loss of the Gaelic language, as Irish adopted English to modernize themselves, leaving 19th century Irish culture in a vacuum between the two with Catholicism the remaining thread.

During Ireland’s development of nationalism a “Celtic Renaissance” did occur and nationalist leaders turned back to their Celtic roots, blending the Catholic foundation in place with a revived Celtic spirit creating an even stronger nationalism unique to Ireland alone. Michael Collins, a nationalist and leader of the 1916 rebels reflected on this key shift, “We only succeeded after we had begun to get back to our Irish ways; after we had made a serious effort to speak our own language and after we had striven again to govern ourselves.” Though Irish nationalism of the 20th century did develop from both Celtic and Catholic, it is only through the basis of Catholic theology that the sacrificial framework of the 1916 Uprising was possible.

The concept of sacrifice and imagery of a blood sacrifice for the cause of revolution to bring redemption to Ireland was championed by Irish Republican Brotherhood (IRB) leader Patrick Pearse. In every choice the rebels made within the 1916 Uprising, Pearse desired to maintain a symbolic and sacrificial tone; this is why they chose Easter Monday for the date of the rebellion to achieve greater meaning by paralleling their sacrifice to Ireland with Christ’s sacrifice for us. This nature of symbolism also affected the rebels’ choice of the General Post Office as their headquarters, not for its practicality as it made communication more difficult and offered little protection, but for its dramatic location on Dublin’s main street. They did this because the 1916 Uprising was not about a successful revolution, instead it was to gain British attention through an act of violence and sacrifice, a controversial plan that even leaders within the IRB, like Eion (John) MacNeill condemned as a “lunatic idea.”

The desire of the Sinn Fein rebels to gain British attention was an immediate and pressing reason as to why they followed Pearse’s framework of sacrifice within the Uprising. They knew they could not successfully take on the British Empire, but the rebels knew they could cause enough agitation to give the British no other option than to deal with them. Frustration from the delayed implementation of the Third Home Rule Bill motivated nationalists to take action, as patience had worn thin, and Parnell’s system to work with Great Britain in parliament seemed hopeless. Desperation set in amongst the nationalists and the idea of sacrificing their lives to further Ireland’s cause seemed something worth dying for.

The Home Rule Bill’s implementation was delayed by the British due to their involvement in World War I; all of Great Britain’s focus had shifted eastward to the conflict on the European continent and away from the desires of the Irish people. In addition to this Ireland was put under conscription since they remained part of the British Empire, outraging the Sinn Fein leaders as they viewed WWI as a British War, and saw their countrymen’s lives being sacrificed for no greater cause other than British benefit.  Britain’s decision to postpone Home Rule until after WWI was a logical one in order to avoid upheaval on two fronts, since the Protestant Irish province of Ulster disagreed with the Catholic nationalism of the Sinn Fein, Great Britain desired to avoid another conflict in the midst of the Great War.

Their fears of a two front conflict were realized on Good Friday of 1916, when the British navy intercepted German munitions ships off the southern coast near County Kerry, destined to supply local IRB units for the Uprising on the following Easter Monday. Under the organization of Roger Casement, a deal was crafted that Germany would supply the IRB with 20,000 rifles and ten machine guns to defend themselves against British military intervention. This deal was mutually beneficial as both Germany and Irish nationalists saw Great Britain as their great adversary, and the potential of surrounding the British between the Western front and a new Irish front seemed too promising for the Germans and Irish to refuse.

In spite of the failed attempt to gain German aid, and MacNeill’s condemnation of the plan to rebel on Easter Monday 1916, Sinn Fein and Irish Volunteer leaders pushed forward. At noon on April 23, 1916, Sinn Fein Volunteers marched through the city for the most part unnoticed by their fellow citizens who were focused on Easter celebrations, and undisturbed by police who did not wish to get involved – the general consensus being “let sleeping dogs lie.” Since the rebels had officially “canceled” the Uprising they sacrificed the opportunity to have the support of Dublin’s citizens, further setting the odds against the small group of Sinn Fein Volunteers, a significant flaw in their plan.

The Sinn Fein and Irish Volunteers were both crucial players in forming the foundation and mobilization of a rebellion for Ireland; though they were at times radical they contributed considerably to the formation of an independent Irish State. Sinn Fein which means “we ourselves” in Irish Gaelic was a forceful movement within Ireland and Irish immigrants abroad in America, where the Fenian Brotherhood was formed by Irish Civil War veterans eager to stay involved in the Irish struggle for Home Rule.  The relationship between the American branch of the Fenian Brotherhood and the Sinn Fein members in Ireland provided strong support where the German attempt failed. It also created an interesting relationship between America and Ireland, as American born Eamon De Valera became Ireland’s first President in 1919.

As the rebels marched into the city they commandeered the General Post Office and surrounding buildings, securing a headquarters and stage within the center of the city for the Provisional Government, led by Patrick Pearse to declare the Poblacht Na H Eireann (Republic of Ireland) to the people. In the closing of Ireland’s declaration of independence, the foundation of sacrificial nationalism is evident: “In this supreme hour the Irish nation must, by its valour and discipline and by the readiness of its children to sacrifice themselves for the common good, prove itself worthy of the august destiny to which it is called.”

Sinn Fein Volunteers took several random buildings around the city which made already limited communication even more chaotic, contributing to a failed attempt to take Dublin Castle and railways. As chaos ensued destructive forces took over in both rebel decisions and those of the citizens of Dublin; since the Sinn Fein Volunteers were not able to gain control of the railways they blew them up, along with telephone service, making it more difficult for British military forces to reach Dublin. Citizens capitalized on the opportunities chaos brought, looting stores and buildings, adding to Dublin’s destruction which took a serious turn on Wednesday night April 26th when the fires began. The Uprising lasted six days in its entirety, with British intervention beginning on Tuesday April 25th, and Pearse’s unconditional surrender on Saturday April 29th.

After a week of turmoil Dublin city was ravaged by destruction; the combination of looting, gunfire combat, bombing and fires caused an estimated £2,500,000 of damage. The damage done to Dublin angered the British as much as the rebellion itself, a mood that was reflected in their resulting treatment of the Irish nationalists after the 1916 Uprising. Sinn Fein involvement also contributed to their outrage; in the 1860s and 1870s the organization had been responsible for radical protests including the bombing of the House of Commons in London and another at Clerkenwell prison in 1867 that killed twelve people. Irish nationalists were driven through the events of the Uprising by a sacrificial nationalism, sacrificing themselves for their cause and the British in their desire for retribution enabled this to happen.  

British troops invaded Dublin within two days of the initial Uprising with rebels continuing to fight strong, until Wednesday the 26th when the Sinn Fein Volunteers were forced to retreat and fight with desperation, as any momentum they had began to dwindle. Wednesday was a key point in the rebellion, the British sent the Royal Navy Admiralty Steamer Helga up the River Liffey to bomb the General Post Office, which added to the destruction of the city, a point forgotten by the British in their blame placed on the Sinn Fein for the damages. The combination of heavy bombardment and fires that ensued that night utterly destroyed the Post Office, leaving only remnants of the outer walls, a decisive victory for the British.  Without the refuge of the Post Office headquarters for the rebels to turn to, their struggle turned into crisis and the eventual unconditional surrender and declared cease-fire on the following Saturday.

Immediately following the cease-fire, Ireland was placed under strict martial law, a system that was to remain in effect until the creation of a free Irish State in 1921. A curfew of 7:30 pm to 5:30 am was established as well as the surrender of arms and the possession of arms prohibited to all Irish citizens, also all political meetings were declared illegal. The British troops were able to secure all the major nationalist leaders and a significant majority of Sinn Fein and Irish Volunteers that had united through the Uprising to form the Irish Republican Army (IRA). A small amount of IRA members remained at large throughout Ireland, forming the precedent of guerilla warfare in 20th century Ireland; a strategy utilized during the Troubles of 1919-21 – the Irish war of independence.

Under Great Britain’s imposed martial law the punishment of the rebels began directly, with trials beginning on April 30th and continuing through May 22nd. Within the first two weeks of trials, all fifteen leaders who signed the Poblacht Na H Eireann were executed, beginning with Patrick Pearse, Thomas J. Clarke, and Thomas McDonagh on May 3rd and ending with James Connolly and John McDermott on May 12th. The only leader spared was Eamon De Valera because of his American citizenship; instead he was sentenced to life in prison along with the majority of his fellow Sinn Fein Volunteers. In total 3,226 rebels, 3,149 men and 77 women, were arrested and imprisoned on varying sentences of two years to life imprisonment.

The vast amount of prisoners could not be contained in Irish prisons and the bulk of convicted rebels were deported to other penitentiaries around the United Kingdom and Australia from May 1st to May 20th.  Out of the 3,226 rebels sentenced, 2,169 were deported from Ireland, 1,972 sent to several facilities around England, 103 to Glasgow, Scotland and 97 to Perth, Australia. Though the British made a point of making their power known to the Irish through severe sentences and deportation, on July 11th 1916, 1,104 rebels were released including 72 women, before serving their full term.

The harsh response of British martial law was critical mistake in Great Britain’s plan of Irish nationalism containment; instead of deterring their nationalist spirit it played directly into the Sinn Fein’s sacrificial nationalism. It gave the IRA, newly formed out of the combined efforts of the Sinn Fein and Irish Volunteers, the perfect propaganda turning the execution of each rebel leader into martyrs sacrificing their lives for the good of the Republic of Ireland. IRA member Florence O’Donoghue reflected that, “The military failure of the Rising proved to be less significant than the effects of its impact upon the nation’s mind…In Easter week the historic Irish nation was reborn.”

What appeared a devastating failure initially for Irish nationalism and Home Rule, within the context of sacrificial nationalism achieved more than constitutional nationalists had accomplished throughout the 19th century. The 1916 Uprising shifted the politics of Ireland into an aggressive revolutionary movement, rejecting the constitutional fight of Parnellism, and achieved the initial goal of the Easter Rebellion to get Great Britain’s attention in a way that they could no longer ignore the desires of Ireland. It further supported the republican notion that constitutional means only led to compromise, something the Irish nationalists of the Sinn Fein and eventually the IRA were tired of doing, and radical movements seemed the only logical solution left.

A rebirth of the Irish nation was awakened by the sacrifice of the rebel leaders; the arrests, internments and executions produced widespread sympathy throughout Ireland. The religious fervor in the attitudes of the leaders executed in combination with the sympathetic nature of the rebel leaders themselves produced new martyred heroes in Irish politics and culture of the 20th century. In a letter to his mother on the morning of his execution, Patrick Pearse wrote “This is the death I should have asked for if God had given me the choice of all deaths – to die a soldier’s death for Ireland and for freedom. We have done right.” The Sinn Fein leaders were ordinary educated men, most being writers or poets and through the unity of their new sacrificial nationalism deeply religious, something that hit home with the general public of Irish Catholics.

Sacrificial nationalism embodied in the leaders’ actions and the goals of their 1916 Uprising touched the people of Ireland and their own Catholic backgrounds, unifying Ireland’s people behind the IRA and the guerrilla warfare to come in 1919-21. Without this mindset of sacrificing themselves for the good of country and cause, and the strong reaction by Great Britain, the 1916 Uprising could not be seen as the victory it was for 20th century Irish nationalism.

 

 

Irish Times. Sinn Fein Rebellion Handbook, Easter, 1916: A Complete and Connected   Narrative of the Rising, with Detailed Accounts of the Fighting at All Points. Dublin: Irish   times, 1917.

National Library of Ireland, “The 1916 Rising: Personalities and Perspectives.” Last modified   2009. Accessed February 22, 2012. http://www.nli.ie/1916/1916_main.html.

English, Richard. Armed Struggle: The History of the IRA. New York, NY: Oxford University Press, Inc., 2003.

Foster, R. F. Modern Ireland: 1600-1972. New York, NY: Penguin Group, 1989.

Hepburn, A. C. . “Language, Religion, and National Identity in Ireland since 1880.” Perspectives on European Politics and Society. 2. no. 2 (2001).

Kilberd, Declan. Inventing Ireland. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, 1995.

McCaffrey, Carmel. In Search of Ireland’s Heroes: The Story of the Irish from the English Invasion to the Present Day. Chicago, IL: Ivan R. Dee, 2007.

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Course Description: Celtic Ireland 490 AD-1169 AD

This course will span the era of Early Medieval Irish History, in which Ireland begin to shape itself by interaction with the outside world. The survey will begin with the establishment of Christianity in 490 AD, in the form of monasticism, and continue into the era of Viking raids until the Norman Invasion of 1169 AD. This is seen as the Golden Age of Gaelic Ireland, as they ruled independently under a principality structure of High Kings, with each clan territory ruled by their own king. Although there was a Christian presence on the island, Celtic Druid priests remained influential in shaping culture, by their presence in the courts of ruling Chieftains. Gaelic language, art, and ancient literature also flourished during this time, in spite of Viking Invasion, and Ireland developed its own character. The purpose of this course is to gain a better understanding of the origins of Ireland, before they were forced under England’s rule. They looked to revive this culture during the 19th and 20th centuries, and I would like to better understand the original, in order to understand the Home Rule movement more clearly. I will outline the course by devoting time to secondary sources on monasticism, High King Brian Boru, an overview of societal structure, and interaction with the Vikings. My primary sources will include writings by Irish monks, the Annals of Aran, and Celtic myths and folklore.

Celtic Ireland 490AD-1169AD

 

The early medieval period was a source of identity for the nation of Ireland, during these years the Irish went through cultural transition from a pagan Druid community to monastic Christian society. Their heroes were re-imagined from the mythical warrior kings and champions to holy ascetic monks, who achieved glory by living a disciplined life instead of fighting in battle. The Irish transformed their worldview from warfare on earth between humans and avatars of the gods to a spiritual warfare between the soul and sin. This was also a unifying period, as through Christianity a common Celtic church culture was crafted by mission work between Britain and Ireland. Before this period the common Celtic identity was abstracted by isolation and animosity between tribes, these barriers were broken down by the spread of a new faith which re-imagined traditional Celtic society. In addition the reign of Brian Boru, the first High King of all the regions of Ireland, brought the Irish people under one leader for the first time. With a society under one God and briefly under one temporal King, the Irish identity was streamlined from layers of complicated polytheism and network of regional kings they had existed under before.

The complexities of the Irish identity before this time of tradition were difficult to discern throughout my reading in the course. Traditional tribal society passed down their history orally through the means of storytelling, which are entertaining but they blur the line between fact and fiction. It is not as reliable as other sources from cultures who recorded their history in a written form, which makes the study of early medieval Ireland dependent on speculation. The clearest way to collect information is to live in the story, and use the imagery as a metaphor for what this society viewed as important, such as the values they decided to illustrate in the plots and what virtues or skills the heroes of the stories exhibited. The evidence of religion in these stories also provides evidence of what motivated the society and what was at its foundation.

Before Christianity the religious culture of Ireland surrounded Druidism, a violent ritual based religion that blurred the lines between the mortal and immortal worlds. Druid priests were a source of knowledge and guidance to the society, even for the ruling king, who was under the leadership of the Druids. The ruling king was not autonomous; he was a servant of the information interpreted by the Druids, from the blood and guts of ritual sacrifice. Hierarchy and ritual were the glue of the religion and the society. Ireland was a tribal based society of free and enslaved people, it was further divided in the free caste between privileged and unprivileged, and within the privileged nemed class contained four subclasses of the Druids – Philosophers, Vates, Filidh, and Bards. The Vates were priests who performed the worship ritual and maintained holy sites, philosophers were the interpreters and were believed to be the only ones who communicate with the gods. Filidh were satirical poets that used the spoken word for official tribal business, such as curses or blessings, and the bards who composed their poetry for enjoyment and a record of history. This structure is a source of identity for the Irish and will be adapted later into the Christian era, as it places the power of storytelling and poetry at the center of life. The importance of story and poetry influences how the Irish educate themselves, how they communicate in times of joy and times of hardship, as well as how their history is passed down, and their character of worship. An example of this is found in the Irish legends of Cuchulainn and character of Bricru the Poison-Tongue, a satirical poet of the Filidh subclass, who can curse a man to death by the power of his poetry.

The importance of heroics and honor are significant in the Irish identity, this stems from the power of storytelling and the legends that were passed down as cultural folklore and history. The cosmology of the Irish surrounded multiple deities that had to be appeased through the festival of Salmain on Oct 31, the deities were believed to go between the divine and human world taking on many forms including forms of nature. This created an understanding of the world based on a magical view of spiritual interaction; anything seemed possible in their world for the immortals lived among them. In the legend of Cuchulainn, the boy’s divine lineage comes from the interaction of the gods and mortals, as the goddess Macha secretly lives in Ulster and gives birth to twins who will go one to produce the heir of Cuchulainn, and the release the curse placed by Macha. In addition the early tales of Tuatha de Danaan characters are easily transformed into other forms, a woman is turned into a fly and children into swans, who remain suspended in time without harm. These stories craft an identity of a magical world and a magical character. The Irish pass these stories down, particularly the legend of Cuchulainn who inspires warriors, kings and later politicians, based upon his determination even upon death. Cuchulainn is the liberator of the northern Ulster community, who are subject to a curse that weakens, making them unable to fight in any battle.

By his enormous skill and strength Cuchulainn follows the prophecy of his life, and lives a short and tragic life in order to gain eternal fame. This illustrates the kind of patriotic character Ireland will draw from during their freedom struggle a thousand later in the 20th century, where the freedom fighters take a short and tragic fight for the honor of Ireland, with their sacrifice providing unmatchable fame. Honor in the Irish identity is also important, as it is a recurring theme in the legends of this era, just as the spoken word of poetry holds sway so does the power of reputation and honor. Shame was the downfall to avoid in each story, even before death as champions and kings could still find honor and fame in death, yet shame would undo all of these. Cuchulainn illustrates this as he is forced to battle his own friends in his final battle, in order to preserve the honor of Ulster above his own feelings, otherwise he will fall victim to shame and weakness.

Tragic honor is a recurring theme in Irish history as the greatest King of Ireland; Brian Boru will lead a life similar to Cuchulainn. Whether the model of Cuchulainn was taught to Brian as the ideal form of a warrior or this underlying source of identity inspired Brian to fight to a tragic end I cannot say for sure. I believe the tales of Cuchulainn culturally played a role in Brian Boru’s life, but the religious power of the legends was downplayed by the heavy influence of Christianity at the time of his reign in the 11th century. Brian Boru was a ruling chieftain and warrior from the southern Munster region of Ireland, at this time Vikings dominated areas of the political landscape as well as other Chieftains who monopolized the tribal hierarchy of Ireland. Brian Boru sought the opportunity to monopolize himself, and used the rivalries of Cheiftains and Viking Jarls to strategically play rivals against each other in order to further his own power. This was a key moment for Irish history as Brian Boru restructured the political system by bringing all five regional kingdoms into one united country, creating a unified Irish national identity for the first time. Before this identity was based upon regions or tribes but Brian’s short 10 year reign as high king of all the Irish left a legacy of accomplishment and presented a new idea of government for Ireland.

Another unifying factor that will transform the Irish identity from strictly earthy fame to heavenly perfection was the introduction of Christianity into Ireland. Christianity was brought to the Celtic tribes in Britain during Roman colonization but declined after the fall of the Romans, missionaries from this original thread of Christianity, including St. Patrick went to Ireland where Christianity took root. The Church in Ireland grew and in turn sent missionaries back to Britain, most famously missionaries from Iona where St. Columba established a monastery, revived the British Church. This created a unified Celtic Church that was a source of identity between Britain and Ireland. A lack of supervision from the Romans and the spread of monasticism from the Desert Fathers of Syria and Egypt, led to a unique church structure in Ireland. Monasticism of the Pelagian theology divorced the notion that the immortal and mortal worlds could be connected on this earth, in contrast to the pagan religion that came before. Under Pelagianism perfection could be attained by a disciplined and ascetic life, your salvation came through your own work by mortifying your own flesh and emulating Jesus in your own life. The powers of grace and mercy were removed from this life under this school of thought; faithful were not allowed to sin after conversion and were assigned strict penance if sin did happen.

Pelagianism and monasticism created a new wave of identity for the Irish as their battle shifted to a spiritual struggle against sin, sacrifices and rituals were no longer available to placate the gods, instead they had to give their lives over to asceticism in order to achieve honor. In spite of this shift in religion and identity, the old Druid class structure was preserved with monks to replace the Vates and philosophers. The Filidh and Bards remain and contribute to Christianity this time through the written word; monks were educated as scribes and began to write down the legends and poetry of the Irish which preserved the legends. It is through the scribes work that the Early Medieval period is able to be studied through story, as they recorded the tales into record, which provide an importance source identity for the Irish.

 

Barry Cunliffe, Druids: A Short Introduction, (London: Oxford Univeristy Press, 2010).

Marie Heaney, Over Nine Waves, (London: Faber and Faber Limited, 1995), 99-112. Ibid, 65-68. Ibid, 22-49.

Sean Duffy, Brian Boru and the Battle of Clontarf, (New York: Gill & MacMillan, 2014).

Michael W. Herren and Shirley Ann Brown, Christ in Celtic Christianity, (Rochester: Boydell Press, 2012), 21. Ibid, 75.